types and trends of teaching

types and trends of teaching
mokymo tipai ir kryptys statusas T sritis švietimas apibrėžtis Istoriškai susiformavusių didaktinių pažiūrų į mokymo paskirtį, metodus bei priemones ir jų naudojimo būdus visuma. Skiriami trys mokymo tipai: reproduktyvusis, produktyvusis ir mišrusis. Reproduktyviojo mokymo kryptys: • imitacinė (pirmykštė bendruomenė), • loginė-dogmatinė (viduramžiai), • aiškinamoji-iliustracinė (naujieji laikai), • išmokimo-bihevioristinė, refleksinė (naujausieji laikai), • interiorizacinė-etapinė (dabartinė). • Produktyviojo mokymo kryptys: • heuristinė, • probleminė, • tiriamoji. Kibernetinė (algoritminė, programuojamo mokymo, kompiuterinė) mokymo kryptis artima reproduktyviajam ir produktyviajam mokymui priklausomai nuo to, kaip šios krypties metodai taikomi praktikoje. Ji skirtina prie mišriojo tipo. Reproduktyviojo mokymo tipas nuo seniausių laikų vyravo iki XIX a. pab. Produktyviojo mokymo idėją ir metodą sukūrė Sokratas (IV a. pr. Kr.), įvedęs heuristinį mokymą, bet tik kai kurie J. F. Herbarto pasekėjai, R. Zeifertas, o ypač JAV pedagogas Dž. Diujis (XX a. pr.) sukūrė produktyviojo probleminio mąstymo ugdymo kryptį, kurią pedagogai ypač išplėtojo 8–ajame dešimtmetyje. XX a. taip pat susiformavo tiriamoji kryptis (tiriamasis metodas), jo pabaigoje – modulinis mokymas, susiliejantis mokymas, kritinis mokymas, grupinis mokymas, randamasis mokymas ir kt. atitikmenys: angl. types and trends of teaching vok. Typen und Richtungen des Unterrichts rus. типы и направления обучения

Enciklopedinis edukologijos žodynas. 2007.

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